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And the

Christian Catholic Apostolic Church






With an introductory preface by







Robert M. Antes                                                            EVANSVILLE. WISCONSIN



Copyright, 1906

by Rolvix HARLAN.





Introductory preface


            There are few men who have occupied so large a space in the newspapers during the last twelve years as that devoted to John Alexander Dowie. Yet there are few concerning whom intelligent readers know so little. Who is this man? His egregious pretensions would seem to stamp him as an impostor, while, nevertheless, a large following demands that we pause before pronouncing this judgment. His alleged miracles would seem to proclaim him a charlatan, while his denunciations of vice and crime are held by many to prove him a good minister of the gospel. Some of his utterances suggest that he is insane, while his success in business during the earlier years of Zion City presents him to us as at that time a man of eminent practical sagacity.

          One finds mysteries and discrepancies not only in Mr. Dowie, but also in his followers. They are highly moral. Have they then willingly followed lies? They are not childish or idiotic. Have they then been misled by a tissue of commonplace frauds? These good people have associated closely with Mr. Dowie every day for years, and yet have applauded his wildest utterances and attested his most extravagant claims of miraculous power. How shall we account for these things?             

            When we have made a certain progress towards the solution of these perplexities, it will still remain for us to study the Christian church of our time to see if perhaps some temporary phase of its life may justify the conclusions which we have reached.

            It will remain for us also to study the other movements of a similar kind for which the close of the nineteenth century and the opening of the twentieth have been somewhat conspicuous.

            We have all wished for some careful student who should lead us through these dim lands and should explain them to us. I have the happiness of introducing such a student to the readers of this book. The author, the Rev. Mr. Harlan, has spent years in surveying all parts of the complex assemblage of problems connected with the rise of Mr. Dowie from obscurity to power and notoriety and to his recent decline and fall. He has traced Mr. Dowie from his birth to his latest vagaries, He has moved among the followers of Mr. Dowie and has conversed with them freely. He has been a guest at Shiloh House and has received from its inmate’s very courteous assistance in his work. He has carried this particular religious movement into the broad fields of church history, and has sought such illustrations: of it as can be found there. In short, he is such a guide as every student of the movement under Mr. Dowie has wished to find, and it gives me great pleasure to present him to the reader, with the assurance that he has thoroughly mastered his subject, and that those who follow him will reach satisfactory conclusions based upon all the facts which are necessary to the formation of them.


                                                                                   FRANKLIN JOHNSON

                                                                                                          Professor of Church History.

The University of Chicago



                                            AUTHOR’S PREFACE  


          The following study has been offered in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the faculty of Church History at the University of Chicago. It was undertaken with a view to trying to settle the question, as to the indefinite "something'' in the mysterious ''all this,'' which the rapid growth of Zion and the extent of Mr. Dowie's claims to divine office and power, caused to be raised.

            Mr. Dowie is considerable of a problem for his contemporaries, being such a strange apparition in the civilization of the opening of the twentieth century. Without his personality being taken into the account, no satisfactory account can be given of the rise and growth of the religious movement which he started. Zion people are no less a problem. An age boasting of its widespread knowledge of science, and the prevalence of the attitude of criticism, must account for the large groups of people which are occasionally formed utterly alien to its spirit and culture.

          The interest in this movement from the standpoint of church history is only equaled by the interest which the student of social psychology would have. Sometime the full history of the Mind Cure movement must be written and materials for the history of abnormal Christianity in America must be gathered.

            Here we have an opportunity to view the rise of a tradition and set of religious ideas, with the beginnings of a cult. The influence of the segregation of a people upon the group life and the life of the individual can also be seen here, although as yet not sufficient time has elapsed since the founding of Zion City for the development of distinct types of character.

            There is room for a difference of opinion as to the relative amounts of self-deception and craftiness, disease of imagination and judgment, and intentional conscious fraud.

            It has been the aim in this study to present only a general historical sketch of the movement, giving more attention to its special features, and the character of its founder. Since the manuscript was placed in the hands of the printer a few events of importance have transpired in connection with Zion.

            On July 27, 1906 Judge Landis of the United States Circuit Court, sitting in Chicago, appointed a receiver, Mr. J. C. Hateley, to take charge of the industries in Zion City, and ordered that a General Overseer be elected by the people of that city on the following September 18. The publication of Leaves of Healing, the official Zion paper was suspended until after the election. Mr. Dowie was awarded a maintenance for the remainder of his life.

             On September 18 the election was held pursuant to the order of the court, and Mr. Wilbur Glenn Voliva chosen General Overseer or head of the church, by an all but unanimous vote.

            What will be the course of Mr. Dowie is still a problem although he seems to be too much depleted in strength and health to be any considerable factor in Zion affairs again even should he live a long time which is extremely doubtful.

            Acknowledgment is made of the kindly response of many of the Zion people to inquiries I have made of them by letter, or in person. Acknowledgement is also made of the courteous assistance given me by Mrs. Dowie and her son, Dr. A. J Gladstone Dowie, upon the occasion of a visit to their home, at which time they verified the facts in the early life of Mr. Dowie and confirmed my general estimate of his character.

            Evansville, Wis., October, 1906.


                                                          CO N T EN T S


Introductory Preface, ------------- 9, 10  


Author's Preface, ------------------11, 12 


Introduction, -----------------------1-27           

      Meaning of C. C. A. C. in Zion. - Purpose. - Scheme of Organization. - Statistics, - Extent of Zion. - Restoration Host. – Publications - Zion City. -  Location. - Founding - Government - Industries, - Educational Institutions. - Worship. - Peculiarities. - Attitude toward Secretism. - Race Question. - New York Visitation. - More Recent Developments.


                                                CHAPTER I


The Founder of Zion, -------------28-39

     Birth and Early Life - Early Religious Work. - Beginning of Ministry of Healing. - Visiting the United States. -  Chicago. - Organizing the C. C. C - Messenger of the Covenant. - Elijah. - First Apostle.


                                                          CHAPTER II


Characterization, ------------------40-51

     Popular Estimates. - Appearance. - Style of speaking. - Shrewdness, Foresight, Hypocrisy.  


                                                           CHAPTER III


Characterization Continued. ------ 52-62

     Skillful Planning - Patience. -Was He Sincere? - Double Personality. - Self- deception. - Love of Flattery. - Braggadocio.


                                                          CHAPTER IV


Characterization Continued, -------63-69

     Expert Testimony - Development of Character. - Disease of Personality. - Under delusion.


                                                          CHAPTER V


Point of Contact. -------------------70-79

     Emphasis on Divine Healing. -  Extent of this Belief - Testimony of Pastors. - Letters from Zion. - Eagerness to Testify.


                                                          CHAPTER VI



     Proselyting, - Use of Tracts. - Printed Testimony. - Breaking the hold of the              Denominations. - Teaching Restoration Ideas. - Mr. Dowie as Preacher. - His energy. - Restoration Host. - Administration of Parishes. - Evangelists.          


                                                          CHAPTER VII


Divine Healing of Zion,   --------- 110-138

     The Mind Cure Movement. - Theory underlying. - "God's Way of Healing.'' -                Analysis of Teaching. - Practice. - Court Testimony. - Misrepresentations. -               Failures. - Value of Testimony.- Marked Healings. - Real Cures. - Vis                 Medicatrix Naturae. - Influence of Mind. - Healing by Suggestion. - Further                   Testimonies. - Same Principle in all Mental Healings. - What Should be our           Attitude?


                                                          CHAPTER VIII


Theology of Zion.  -----------------139-160

     No Official Theology. - First Platform. - Inspiration and Interpretation of Scripture. - Satan the Defiler. Jesus the Healer. - Dualism. - Origin of Disease. -Sin a Reality. – Mr. Dowie's Psychology. - Immortality. - Healing and the Atonement. -  Second Coming. - Demon Possession. - Polity of Zion


                                                          CHAPTER IX


People of Zion, -----------------------161-199

     Testimony of Letters. - Testimony of Pastors. - What this Shows. - Belief as to Healing. - As to Mr. Dowie. - As to Sincerity. - As to Unstableness. - As to Education. - As to Social Standing. - As to Religious life. - As to Credulity and Docility. - As to Culture. - Primitive. - Imitative, Etc. - A Psychological Crowd.


                                                          CHAPTER X


Conclusion, ----------------------------200-204 







The religious movement inaugurated and inspired by Mr. Dowie came to be known as the Christian Catholic Apostolic Church in Zion, after Mr. Dowie announced himself First Apostle in September, 1904. It has been through an evolutionary process, which with the progress of Mr. Dowie's assumptions of office and authority, will appear in later chapters. Since the revolt in April, 1906, the word Apostolic has been dropped, not by Mr. Dowie of course, but by the new regime under Deputy General Overseer Voliva.

            Mr. Dowie has been variously designated by his followers. They were accustomed to refer to him affectionately as the "Doctor, ''or the General Overseer,'' or as "the First Apostle." This of course was before the overthrow of his authority, for now scarcely any one can be found so submissive as to do him reverence.

His organization is popularly called Zion, which to the ''knowing'' means the Kingdom of God referred to in the Old Testament under the name Zion.

The C. C. A. C. in Zion is regarded as one of the agencies for establishing the Kingdom of God. The denominational churches are regarded as "apostate,'' but are also, so far as they are preaching the gospel, considered to be a part of the Kingdom of God. The members who are truly Christian are a part of Zion, although they may not be in the restored, primitive C. C. A. C. in Zion. This is their theoretical attitude, although Mr. Dowie would hardly be thought to be willing to concede as much, when we hear him saying: ''the purpose of Zion is to smash every other church in existence. . . . The


* Much of this was written while Mr. Dowie was still in power and for the sake of vividness it has been thought best not to change the tenses.




churches of today have gone in the way of Baal ... There are multitudes of good people within these churches. There are multitudes of Godly ministers within these churches. ... They are deceived by their leaders ... God's will is the destruction of every organization which does not extend the Kingdom of God ... Zion has arisen, a Kingdom which cannot be shaken, the Kingdom of God" *  Mr. Voliva is practically a ditto of Mr. Dowie at this point. (See L. of H. Vol. 18, No. 26, P.458.)

In this discussion we will use the term Zion as referring to the C. C. A. C. in Zion, or the people whom Mr. Dowie has so organized.

The first organization was effected in February, 1896 as the C. C. C. in Zion, and altered in September, 1904 to C. C. A. C. in Zion. Mr. Dowie was known as General Overseer, then as Prophet, and since September, 1904, as First Apostle. This he has demanded of his followers. In the organization of the church are found various officers. Overseers, who have the supervision of fields of labor or departments of work, e.g. the Overseer of Zion City, or for Africa, or for Australia, etc.; Elders, who administer appointed branches or stations; Evangelists, who teach the way of the Kingdom of God and who hold missions at various points; Deacons and Deaconesses, who are resident in branches or gatherings, devoting their time to secular duties of their own choosing or church appointment. ** A woman may hold any of these offices. Mrs. Jane Dowie is the only one who has held the office of Overseer,


* Voice from Zion, Vol. 4, No.8, pp. 12, 13.

The bitter opposition of the churches to Mr. Dowie and the abuse merited and unmerited which he has received from the ministry have doubtless led him to the practical attitude towards the churches which contradicts this theoretical attitude which was one of strategy as much as conviction. Mr. Dowie has praised or blamed, approved or derided the churches as the mood was upon him or as the particular occasion seemed to demand for the purposes of his propaganda among those in the churches. (See chapter on Propaganda of Zion.)


** Pamphlet. Many Sided Views of Zion.




being in charge of the woman's work. No unmarried man may hold office above that of Deacon, and the wife of an Overseer is usually made an elder. This was Mr. Dowie's general scheme of organization.

The statistics of Zion are not to had from any trustworthy Zion source. Mr. Dowie said, April 29, 1900,* "Thanks be to God that a church four years old, with less than five hundred members at its organization may be safely counted as composed of fifty thousand members." This is only one sample of his exaggeration, as at that time not more than 12,000 had been baptized by triune immersion, and it is doubtful if at any time his following has aggregated more than 25,000. In the Literary Digest, Vol. 30, No. 5, p. 170, the report of the Commissioner of U. S. Statistics is partially reproduced and gives the estimate forty thousand as a maximum figure for Mr. Dowie's followers. About 22,000 have been baptized by triune immersion up to the present, and this includes practically all the members. However with lapses and deaths the decrease has been large. It is to be hoped that the new regime will at least be honest in reporting the strength of their church. **

In this membership are found the rich and poor, some (officers) of University education, but mostly humble unlearned


*Voice from Zion. Vol. 4, No.8, p. 14.


** The manager of Zion Lace Factory writes as follows: "Dowie gives and has given since 1902 ten thousand as Zion's population. I happened to be once in a cabinet meeting with him and other officers when this question came up. His personal attendant, C. F. Stem, who has recently died had had a census taken of houses and people. This was somewhere in spring 1903. He said there were one thousand houses and allowing eight persons to a house you have eight thousand; fine way to get at the population. He found his census was coming short on actual count by a long way from Dr. 's given statement and he stopped the actual count and adopted the eight people to a house method, and to get his average as high as that he sampled  for counting big houses where boarders were kept. Dowie wouldn't accept his figures and said he knew there were more People. My own opinion is that between six and seven thousand is the right estimate." As a matter of fact when Mr. Voliva made a census of the city it was found to contain just 5,387 persons.




people. It is claimed that over seventy nationalities are to be found enrolled in Zion. * Branches and stations are to be found in many parts of the world. All over the United States and in Canada, Zion has established preaching points and carries on an aggressive evangelistic campaign. In the United Kingdom, in many provinces of Europe, in Asia and Africa, Zion's representatives are preaching their threefold gospel of Salvation, Healing and Holy Living.

The publications of Zion are now printed or have been, in German, French, Danish, Norwegian, Dutch, with some little work done in Chinese and Japanese.** 

In an interview at Havana, Cuba, published in Leaves of Healing, Vol. 16, No. 20, p. 638, Mr. Dowie says, "The C. C. A. C. now extends over the whole world. We have many branches in Australia under an Overseer and Elders for instance-"

Interviewer, "Are you in touch with them and do they recognize you as their leader?"

Mr. Dowie. "Yes, and our organization is very close. I am the First Apostle and General Overseer of the church. There are Overseers, which are the same as Bishops; Elders, Evangelists, Deacons and Deaconesses. And then we have a peculiar organization - peculiar because it has never been in its present form, in the church before - called Zion Restoration Host. They are picked members of the church whom we first organized in two's then made them ten's, and then made them seventies, and thoroughly trained them. We have from eight to ten thousand of them in all parts of the world and they are under a special vow to God, to myself as Elijah the Restorer– foretold by Malachi, by St. Peter and by the Christ himself. I can take a legion of them, as I did for instance to New York, three thousand strong, in October of 1903." ***


* Mr. Dowie's statement in L. of H., Vol. 16, No. 20.


** Pamphlet. Many Sided Views of Zion. Since the sickness of Mr.

Dowie the publication work has been very irregular.


*** The vow to which the members of the Zion Restoration Host subscribe is given on the blank form for application, "I vow in the name of God, my Father, and of Jesus Christ. His Son and my Saviour, and of the Holy Ghost, who proceeds from the Father and the Son. that I will be a faithful member of Zion Restoration Host, organized at Shiloh Tabernacle in the City of Zion on Lord's Day September 21, 1902, and I declare that I recognize John Alexander Dowie., General Overseer of the C. C. C. in Zion, of which I am a member in his threefold office, as the Messenger of the Covenant, the Prophet foretold by Moses and Elijah the Restorer.

I promise to the fullest extent of my powers to obey all rightful orders issued by him directly or by his properly appointed officers, and to proceed to any part of the world. wherever he shall direct, as a member of Zion Restoration Host, and that all family ties and obligations, and all relations to all human governments shall be held subordinate to this vow, this declaration and this promise.

This I make in the presence of God and of the visible and invisible witnesses."

Mr. Dowie and Zion have strenuously opposed the oath administered by secret societies and he has evidently tried to word this vow so as to make it appear other than an oath, but there has seldom been a submission expressed in the vow of a religious order more absolute than this. It has of course been conditioned by many circumstances which in many ways practically annulled its stringency, but it represents in the main the authority of Mr. Dowie in Zion, and his capacity for using men to further Zion's interests.




The official organ of the movement is the Leaves of Healing published weekly in English, occasionally in German as Blatter der Heilung, and in French as Feuilles de Guerisson, by John Alexander Dowie at Zion City, Ill., U. S. A. It purports to be "a weekly paper for the extension of the Kingdom of God," and an application for entry as second class matter is pending. Each issue records answers to prayers for healing, and contains a sermon or sermons by its editor and publisher. Numerous pamphlets are published from time to time, the advertising lists containing titles to books and tracts on:

1. Zion, Her Organization, Truths and Leader; 2. Zion's Replies to Her Enemies and Critics; 3. The Evils Zion Exposes and Condemns; 4. Divine Healing and its Truths as Taught in Zion; 5. Prayer and its Conditions as Realized in Zion; 6. Zion's Standard of Consecration and Sanctified Living;




7. Devotional and Inspirational Tracts. A semi-weekly newspaper, the Zion Banner is also edited by Mr. Dowie and published at Zion City.

Zion City is now the headquarters of the Zion movement. It is located on Lake Michigan, 42 miles north of Chicago, and has had at one time a population of approximately 8,000.

Mr. Dowie formed the Zion Land and Investment Association, February 22, 1899 promising at that time if Christians would cooperate with him, he would through that association select and secure near Chicago, a site for Zion City. * January I, 1900, in Central Zion Tabernacle, Chicago, Ill., Mr. Dowie announced to his people that 6,500 acres, more than ten square miles, had been secured in Benton Township, Lake County, Ill. On Saturday, July 14, 1900, the site for Zion Temple in Shiloh Park was consecrated by Mr. Dowie in the presence of ten thousand people. One year later, Monday, July 15, 1901, the gates of Zion City were opened, and in about a week all the lots then offered, were disposed of to intending residents of Zion City. On Friday, August 2, 1901, the first residence in Zion City was ready for occupancy, and before winter, hundreds of houses had sprung up where a little before had been a barren tract. March 31, 1902, Zion City was organized and incorporated under the laws of the State of Illinois.

The Theocratic Party was organized April 7, 1902 and municipal officers elected on this ticket. It is interesting to notice the platform of this party, which is the political creed of Zion. "The Citizens of the City of Zion, Lake County, State of Illinois, being assembled in their first convention, held in Zion City, on the night of Monday, April 7, 1902, for the purpose of nominating the first officers of their city, do so on a Theocratic Platform, and desire to set forth their position and their reasons for the formation of this new party in political affairs of the U. S. of America, in the manner following:


* Pamphlet, City of Zion. From which most of the facts about Zion City are taken. The statistics are often exaggerated in this report.




First. We declare our loyalty to the Constitution and laws of the U. S. of America.

            Second. We affirm that both the Constitution and the Laws are capable of amendment and improvement in a Theocratic direction; and we simply propose to advocate the making of such alterations in the manner provided by the Laws of the United States.

Third. We declare the motto of our party to be the unalterable and unassailable truth that


                             WHERE GOD RULES MAN PROSPERS.


Fourth. Our object is therefore the establishment of the Rule of God in every department of government, by the free will of the people.   

           Fifth. We declare our conviction that the Holy Scriptures which contain the ten commandments, and the inspired Gospel of Jesus, the Christ the son of God, constitute the principles of all righteous government for the individual, for the nation, and for the whole world."*


* In a personal letter to me under date of Dec. 11, 1905, a prominent Zion official says: "We are face to face with some problems of considerable difficulty at this time, but I believe God will give us the solution and that the future will see the work of Zion stronger than ever before and increasing in strength each succeeding year. The working out of a theocratic ideal by those, who for the most part, were born and raised in a community where a democratic ideal has been in vogue, in a country which is fundamentally democratic, has of necessity involved the doing of many things which, like everything in its first stage, are more or less crude. This is not an age of the full realization of an ideal but of an approximation of the same, and thus we shall go on approximation after approximation until we have realized in full the theocratic ideal in the next dispensation. There is much in the community and in this work which is still potential but the future is big with possibilities which year after year will be a reality."

Mr. Dowie would hardly be as candid in acknowledgment of defects or imperfections in the theocratic scheme, but the recent events with the appointment of an Overseer to succeed him at Zion City during his sickness, and the severing of the religious and ecclesiastical side of Zion's work from the commercial, are against him. The management of the business affairs under the theocratic ideal of municipal politics has been a failure because much of a farce under Mr. Dowie's system of absolutism. He is the real cause of the failure. (See article on "The Passing of Dr. Dowie" in The World To-Day, April 1906, which title however is somewhat premature unless Mr. Dowie should be good enough to die and fulfill the element of prediction in the title.)




Zion is thus seen to be interested in politics. Mr. Dowie says, * "The city is governed municipally according to the law of the State of Illinois, and of the United States of America. We bow to these as good citizens, and we have our charter from the state. Our mayor is elected by the people, and our aldermen and judge are elected, and all officers. But I may as well tell you the people would not vote a ticket if I did not approve it. ** There is one ticket and one vote. In voting for Roosevelt the other day, I took pains with my people and instructed them in the issues before the nation, and in the political condition of things from our point of view as Theocrats-believers in the Rule of God ... I said, 'Why shouldn't we all vote for Roosevelt?' Our city is a very young city, and a great many of our people could not vote ... We have to live a certain time in a place to be able to vote; and so of the ten thousand people less than 1,300 men could vote. We polled if I remember correctly, about 1,260 votes and they were all for Roosevelt. Only 16 Democratic ballots were cast, and they came in from outside country districts, and did not belong to Zion. We were President Roosevelt's banner city."

There have been founded in Zion City a number of industries and institutions, some of which have had a season of prosperity; some of which have been or are in a precarious condition. ***


            * Interview published in L. of H., Vol. 16. No. 20, p. 643.


** This we could imagine was said with a twinkle of the eye, but it is a commentary upon the absolutism of Mr. Dowie who is supreme in Zion. One can hardly see how a Theocratic Party rally could call forth the amount of enthusiasm they are reported to have done.


*** The following is from a letter written to me by the Manager of the Zion Lace Factory, dated April 25, 1905 and illustrates the general business methods of Mr. Dowie and the reasons for the precarious condition of the commercial department of Zion.

"I do not consider Mr. Dowie sincere for this reason (one of many.) In his paper Leaves of Healing he causes to be published statements concerning Zion City and its prosperity, which are false and misleading. People are here from England and Australia practically stranded and who cannot get employment, which they had been confidently led to expect, both from Overseers in England and Australia and by the glowing reports published in L. of H. further I have seen what I supposed to be errors, in his statements concerning the Lace Factory and its business which I considered, if allowed to pass deceiving the people. I have more than once respectfully written giving him the true facts and suggesting correction in following issue of paper, which was never done. Many things are so highly colored as to practically amount to wilful deception, as most of the people accept what is written by him as gospel truth. Commercialism is the stone over which Dowie has fallen. Lust for power is another...  None but Dowie can manage the situation as it is. But I ought to have said mismanaged, for it is gradually growing worse and more complicated financially. ... It's the hardest kind of work to keep going. Machinery has had to be stopped many times for yarn. Not because it has not been ordered but because money has not been forwarded for bills long overdue. Zion's strength as a city lies in her Industries and these should be built up regardless of anything. But the reverse has been done. Mr. Dowie appointed me manager in 1901 and on our judgment and information and help the factory has been built ...  We did not ask for so large a building and considered it bad policy to tie up capital in more bricks and mortar than was necessary at first. We have a building capable of containing 82 machines and containing 18 only ...  How the finances are managed I never could find out. I as manager of Lace Factory did not or was not allowed to keep books. That was done up at the bank. I found in 1902 they wasn't paying the yarn bills and I point blank asked them what they were doing with the money they received for Lace Industry Stock, as they were a corporation. They told me mind my own business and they would attend to theirs. I said all right I won't order yam if you don't pay the bills. ... They found they didn't need me as manager any longer, I knew too much and spoke my mind. I have a contract however which specifies my pay but not my position. I challenged their cause for removal as manger, and they wouldn't discuss the matter. I had two or three interviews with Dowie and told him in speech to his face and also in letters what I thought of things. I practically dared him to dismiss me so I could sue him in court and reveal all I knew but he was too wily for that." (He continued to draw salary although not allowed to manage the Lace Factory.) He says further, "This Lace Factory is three times over capitalized and I have challenged him to give a statement of what he has done with the money before asking for more. In the agreement made between Dowie and stockholders he states if dividends promised were not paid out of profits in July, 1902, he would cause a statement to be issued showing conditions and how long they would have to wait before receiving such dividends, and only on non-payment of dividends can anyone call for an accounting. I challenged him on that very condition and said, as manager I very well knew that no profit had been made at that time and that he really owed the stockholders a statement which he avoided by paying dividends out of capital and has done so ever since ...  I have grown up with the lace business and therefore could tell by what lace we were turning out and what wages we were paying that no adequate profit had been made on capital subscribed. And yet he gives glowing accounts of the great success of his Lace Factory." 




Everything is under the absolute ownership and control of Mr. Dowie. Zion City bank, general stores, planning mill, brick yards, fresh food supply, laundry, construction department, printing and publishing house, hospices, lace industries and the like, recognize him as proprietor. In a burlesque on Zion occur these words, "Elijah II is everything from Foundation to the Lightning Rod of the entire institution." This is certainly true, as, advertisements, notices, and every publication




bear witness, to which is added the uniform testimony of those who have been residents in Zion whether or not members of the C. C. C.

Among the Institutions of Zion the system of education deserves especial notice.* At the Spring Convocation, 1905 the claim was made that Zion educational institutions had completed six years of splendid progress and that the future was bright with the immediate prospect of a university. Mr. Dowie is head or president of these institutions; the work of administering them being done by the Vice× Pres. Rev. H. D. Braisefield. Ph. B. (Lafayette, Col.) and former student at Princeton Theological Seminary and Presbyterian minister. **


* L. of H., Vol. 17, No. 12.


** See biographical sketch, L. of H., Vol. 17, No. 12.




A diploma from these schools claims to establish and certify the Christian character of its holder, for not only do they teach one "knowledge," but "wisdom," or how to pray, for "a man or woman who knows how to pray – not merely to say prayers – is in right relations with God and with all his works," and is supposed to have "wisdom." * It was on October 18, 1898 that Mr. Dowie gave an address to his people entitled "The Spirit of Instruction," based upon Neh. 9:20, and announced that the time had come for the C. C. C. in Zion to take up the responsibility of training her own ministry and workers. They had come without exception from the denominations and the school has not been in existence long enough to furnish Zion with Zion made ministers and teachers. He said there was to be a Ministerial Training School in which the teaching of Greek and Hebrew was to be a prominent feature "in order that messengers of Zion might become intelligent students and interpreters of the Scriptures." **


            * L. of H., Vol. 17, No. 12, p. 386.


** The Principal of the Ministerial Training School from the first has been Elder W. H. Cossum, A. M., a man of deep earnestness and unquestioned sincerity. A former classmate of his at Colgate University, Hamilton, N. Y., now an officer of that Institution, says of him in a personal letter to me: "I never knew a truer or more devoted Christian than he is or a man who was a better fellow as a college student. He was genuine through and through and I have no reason to suppose that he has changed in that respect. It is something of a surprise to me that he should have been attracted by Dowie, altho there were features of his life after leaving college which showed him to be rather disposed in such a direction. The only thing that I can say by way of accounting for what may seem erratic in him is that he is a man of most intense character, of strong impulses, with possibly some tendency to go to extremes. He is certainly a conscientious man and one who would follow wherever his conscience might lead him. As a student he was jovial and fun-loving and a thoroughly genial companion, as well as a man of excellent scholarship. He was at the same time strongly devoted to all religious duties, and his extreme seriousness at times made an apparent contrast with his usual geniality. "

            Mr. Cossum would doubtless have been advanced by Mr. Dowie to a higher office in Zion but for his well-known independence. He was the only one remaining in Zion with whom I had any conversation or correspondence who dared, before Mr. Dowie's sickness in the late autumn of 1905, to say that "Dowie is not the whole thing in Zion." He has attempted to organize the Ministerial Training School somewhat after the scheme of courses and studies of Hamilton Theological Seminary of Hamilton, N. Y.




On February 14, 1899, Zion College was established. * The prospectus which was distributed contained in addition to the faculty roster a statement of the purpose of Zion's educational work, which formed the basis of what was pompously called the president's first inaugural address. "The purpose of this advance movement in Zion is to prepare workers for service in the Master's Kingdom, who shall be equipped to teach the full Gospel as interpreted and taught by the C. C. C. ... It will seek to supply deficiencies of early training in members of Zion who wish to fit themselves for fuller usefulness by improving opportunities offered. ... The aim and object of all work in the college is distinctively religious, and is, above all, to teach men to pray so as to receive answers to their petitions."

The enrollment at the beginning of the school year 1904-5, made on the basis of the last place of residence before coming to Zion City, showed 38 states and territories and 19 foreign countries represented by at least one student. The faculty has grown from 18 to 75 and the number of students from 29 to 2,136. **

There is a preparatory school taking the place of the ordinary academy, and junior schools filling out the graded school system, taught and administered after the model of most city schools.

The worship of Zion is what takes up most of the spare time of the people. In fact they make a business of religion. Morning, noon and night, cottage prayer meetings are held


* L. of H. Vol. 17, No. 12, p. 389.


** Report Spring 1905, L. of H. Vol. 17, No. 12, p. 390.




in most of the homes, and if anyone has additional time and further inclination he may attend Bible readings or Healing meetings at Hospice or Tabernacle, at odd hours.

The central place of meeting is Shiloh Tabernacle,* a long wooden building with gallery on three sides, capable of seating about eight thousand persons. It is here that the Sunday afternoon general service is held, at which time all who can possibly do so, assemble for worship. In the summer a large number of members and visitors come from Chicago and Milwaukee. The service begins with a processional sung by the robed choir of more than five hundred voices as they march in. First come the tiny children who at the beginning of the service


* The ultimate aim of Mr. Dowie has been to have a magnificent temple called Shiloh Tabernacle to seat 16,000 people erected in the central and most commanding location in Zion City. On the back of the cover of the program for the Feast of Tabernacles (a yearly series of special services lasting nearly two weeks) July 13th to July 24th, 1904, a picture of this prospective temple was printed with the statement that the building is "Now in course of construction." This was one of Mr. Dowie's promoting schemes as the only thing that had been done was to plow a line around the temple site, and with a great demonstration to remove a few shovels of earth with a steam shovel bought by special contributions for the purpose. An official writes, April 29, 1905: "He is wilfully misrepresenting facts and misleading the people. With the facts so plainly before me every day I cannot come to any other conclusion. One Instance, in 1903 he had plans drawn and actually passed for a building a steel and concrete temple to seat 16,000. To begin excavations he ordered a steam shovel which was sent and erected. The Sunday before he began to use the steam shovel he had a subscription meeting for the new Temple and people walked up to the platform and put their gifts into a big barrel. A day or so later Dowie himself started the steam shovel on its work before an admiring crowd of adherents. In his speech to them he mentioned the good collection they had on the preceding Sunday and said there was enough given to pay for two steam shovels and perhaps three, but he wouldn't say how much definitely. Here is the sequel. Three or four months later the firm who supplied the steam shovel put a man in possession, painted Dowie's name off and he was here four or five weeks pending settlement of account. ...  What had he done with the people's money collected for the purpose which he himself said was more than sufficient to pay the bill. Used if for some other purpose unknown."




are fresh and alert, but who find the lengthy meeting wearisome. Then the boys and girls follow, the entire choir being graded on up to white haired old men and women. The black gowns, with the white surplices and the mortar board caps, make a splendid appearance as the singers arrange themselves in the rear of the platform and pulpit desk where the "Apostle" will stand to conduct the service. The seventies and the officers all robed in black come in next with the Zion Guard and take seats in front of the speaker. Preceded by a few of his most trusted officers, the beautifully gowned "Apostle" slowly ascends the platform and assumes his place as priest to officiate for his people.

The lengthy program of the general service would tire the average church goer because of its monotony and tediousness. As the "First Apostle" comes upon the platform the people rise and stand with bowed heads while the invocation,


"God be merciful unto us and bless us,

 And cause thy face to shine upon us;

 That Thy Way may be known upon earth,

 Thy Saving Health among all the Nations

  For the sake of Jesus. Amen. "


is pronounced. A hymn is followed by the recitation of the Apostle's creed. The recitation of the Ten Commandments follows with the choir and congregation chanting a response to each. After the singing of the Te Deum Laudemus by the choir comes a Scripture reading and exposition usually led by Mr. Dowie or the one presiding at the service, if he be absent. If Mr. Dowie be present this is often his place for denouncing everything and everybody who does not accord with his ideas or notions. The Scripture is simply point of departure, and along the line that any word or phrase may suggest, the speaker goes his automatic way, and seldom does one feel able to discover any thread running through the exposition, save as some occurrence of an irritating nature fresh in the "Apostle's" mind, furnishes him with stimulus for abuse and vituperation well nigh past credibility, if one had




never heard him at it. Notices with long comment and a prayer of great length * are usually inserted somewhere, and the "Message" or sermon is long drawn out so that the whole service lasts four hours or more.

Mr. Dowie has attempted to reproduce the especially spectacular features of the more ritualistic churches, and with music that is far above the ordinary, would have an attractive service indeed, if he were not so much in evidence and so wearisome. However he seems to furnish most of the spice for the larger meeting, for in his absence it is tame enough. Mr. Voliva seems to be able to fill the place of Mr. Dowie in this regard more than could any other officer of Zion.

Triune immersion is the form of baptism used in Zion and the communion service is open to all Christians who wish to participate. There are a number of peculiarities of a religious nature one sees in Zion City. The ordinary greeting is "Peace to Thee" instead of "Good morning," and the usual response is "Peace to Thee be multiplied," and if the Hebrew language were being used instead of the English translation one would imagine himself among the Israelites of old. At nine A. M. the whistle at the power house blows and for two minutes, Mohammedan fashion, everybody turns to prayer in whatever place and from whatever work or occupation, until the same whistle bids them turn their thoughts to secular things again. A number of things are entirely forbidden in Zion City. Bill boards at the cross streets caution one that swearing or smoking or bad language of any sort are not allowed. Zion City will tolerate no breweries, no saloons, no drug or tobacco stores, no physician's or surgeon's offices, no theaters, no gambling places, no dance halls, no secret lodge rooms, no keeping or selling


* A prayer of Mr. Dowie's that was timed by the watch lasted exactly three-quarters of an hour. This was unusual of course, but the last two years, his characteristic service contained a long denunciatory prayer, in which he gave all his enemies and opponents a severe thrashing over the shoulder of the Lord.




of swine's flesh. During the history of the city these regulations have been rigidly enforced, in fact there has seldom been any attempt at infringement. *

Zion's attitude toward Secretism has been one of uncompromising hostility. Not only has renunciation of membership in any secret order been demanded of a prospective member of Zion, ** but an aggressive warfare has been waged. Hardly any issue of Leaves of Healing but contains some allusion to Secretism as the work of the Devil, as a revival of Baalism, or some other form of heathen idolatry. Denunciations of men of high official positions because of affiliation with the Masons has been Mr. Dowie's reserve, when he runs out of things to say upon the topic that he happens to be discussing.***


*  The people of Zion City are carefully watched, and there is constant fear on their part of being reported for even slight infringement of rules and regulations, as spies are very plentiful and reporting a person is commended by Mr. Dowie. "He believes in nipping in the bud if he gets the chance. Every train is watched coming and going by men detailed for that work at the depot, and suspicious persons watched." (Letter from Zion City.)


** "The Freemasons, with sardonic grin, will tell you that their religion is older than Christianity. That is true, in a sense. It is as old as the Devil. But the religion of the Christ is older even than that. ... We give them back their impudent boast, and tell them that the religion of the Lord Jesus, the Christ antedates their mythical and accursed sham of the resurrection of the mythical Hiram Abiff. ...  We declare that Jesus, the Christ, is God, and we are at issue with an atheistic and ungodly Masonry that will not allow His name to be mentioned in their lodges, and that denies His divinity." (Voice of the First Apostle in Shiloh Tabernacle, Lord's day afternoon, January 1, 1905.)

Mr. Dowie is simply an echo of that agitation against secret orders that was at such a tense pitch in New York State after the alleged abduction and murder of Wm. Morgan in 1826. (See Riley "The Founder of Mormonism," p. 161 ff.) How he came to adopt this attitude we may not say, but it is quite certain that the intense feeling against Masonry which has practically died out in the United States still exists in Australia where Mr. Dowie got drawn into it. He published what purports to be a confession of the man who was the very one who murdered Morgan at the instigation of the Masons.


*** L. of. H., Vol. 16, No. 20.




In this as in much else he is closely imitated by the officers of Zion who never lose an opportunity to reiterate their chief's deliverances, even to audiences who have heard them over and over again.

An incidental matter with respect to Zion is its attitude towards the race question. Mr. Dowie once delivered a long harangue upon Miscegenation * endeavoring to show that the Bible teaches the intermarrying of the white and negro races, citing Moses as an example. Among other things he said, "I stand for the Restoration. As Elijah the Restorer I desire to bring back again the strength of the primitive man; and I believe from my spirit that if the yellow, the brown, the black, and the white man could, in the Christ our Lord, and in purity, mingle together in one great family we would probably get the type of man Adam was, and which we lost at Babel when language was confounded and man was scattered. ...  I trust that there shall be no difference, but that we shall have marriages in Zion between all the families of the one great race upon the earth ...  I defend miscegenation." A cartoon in connection with this shows a white man leading a mulatto girl to the marriage altar. Zion, however, has never seemed to take this view seriously and could hardly be said to believe in miscegenation. The same might be said of a number of Mr. Dowie's whimsies. It would be impossible to spare space to even note the attitude of Zion, or rather Mr. Dowie upon the numerous social and economic questions before the American people, as interesting as that


* L. of H. Vol. 16, No. 20


** L. of H., Vol. 13, No. 22. This was apropos the address of Mr. John Temple Graves of Atlanta, Ga., at the University of Chicago Convocation, September 3, 1903. Mr. Dowie had been invited as a special guest of the university as his son Gladstone Dowie was to receive a degree from the law department, and on the following Sunday he must needs take issue with the attitude of Mr. Graves. Hence the form of his address on this subject. Like much of Mr. Dowie's practical teaching this is a tirade against men of opposite social views.




might be. * His discussions are characterized by a lack of appreciation of the true principles involved, and an utter disregard for the feelings of any who may honestly and conscientiously hold other views. He seems utterly incapable of an impartial examination of any question, and can only regard those of another opinion as devils and dastards.

Early in 1903 Mr. Dowie conceived the idea of a New York visitation. By visitation he meant the placing of a large body of his followers in the metropolis for the purpose of assisting him in what might be called a gigantic evangelistic campaign. He began advertising this visitation, and incidentally spoke of the probability of making one to Salt Lake City to root out Mormonism. Another to London later with ten thousand of his people was also mentioned.

The New York visitation was carefully planned and about three thousand of his people were conveyed from Zion City and Chicago to the metropolis. Taking the Restoration vow and making this trip if able to do so, was practically made a test of the loyalty of a resident in Zion City. The journey was made in special trains, and the visitation was so widely advertised that New York was on the qui vive. Meetings were held in Madison Square Garden and in Carnegie Music Hall, during part of October and November, 1903, with great crowds in attendance. Nothing was accomplished except the stirring up of the press to rabid and sarcastic attacks upon Mr. Dowie and his Zion, and his disgracing himself and his people, by thoroughly losing his head and descending to vulgarity in speech that is almost past belief. This attempt at the spectacular cost over $300,000, at a time when the finances of Zion City could not stand the strain.

Many even of his own followers think that this visitation ended in defeat, and very greatly hastened Mr. Dowie's overthrow. It certainly ended disastrously so far as finances are concerned, and as a promoting scheme was a complete


* Mr. Dowie's teaching has not all been acquiesced in although no dissent of any importance was heard until Mr. Voliva's arrival.




failure, and scarcely afforded the gratification of Mr. Dowie's ideas of his own importance and power which evidently prompted it.

During the following winter and spring he went upon what is called a Round the World visitation, with a dozen of his officers. They visited the Orient and Australia, spending large sums of money and not materially benefitting the Zion movement.

Affairs in Zion City were getting very bad financially. Depression increased. Many of the people were being allowed to remain idle, and capital invested, or supposed to be invested was unproductive over long periods. Mr. Dowie commanded the people to sell and come into Zion City, placing their money at his disposal. November 28, 1904, he ordered every person residing in the city, to deposit funds in Zion City bank. "I have a list of all persons in Zion who have made no deposits since I sent out my first command, and I tell you we have no use for them. If they don't show down to-morrow they will be expelled from Zion. I am not afraid of the financial condition of Zion. I do not know what fear is. The member of Zion who fears to put his money into our hands for safe keeping is a coward and we have no use for him here. He must get out. We can't have him here for he is opposing the Lord by refusing to entrust his wealth in Zion." These are his reported words, and approximately sum up the situation with respect to the tyranny that was tightening its grip on an over credulous following, in the name of the most sacred religious sanctions. His officers knew the true situation and also knew the agreement upon which these people entered Zion, and yet not one of them dared raise even a protest against a tyranny the like of which has seldom been equaled. No redress was to be had by an appeal for a hearing in case of refusal to accede to the demands of Mr. Dowie, and indeed in many cases the officers were the instruments of the execution of the threats of their chief who dismissed summarily, any who refused to surrender all independence even in financial affairs.




Yet the people trust their interests in the keeping of these same officers after Mr. Dowie's overthrow.

However this command of Mr. Dowie did not relieve the situation very much. In an indictment against the deposed leader presented in L. of H., Vol. 18, No. 25, p. 439, by the revolting officers of Zion, it is stated:

"He commanded all members of the Christian Catholic Church in Zion throughout the world to sell all they had and come to Zion City, placing their money in his hands.

He sent out members and friends of Zion wherever he could to borrow money mortgaging their property, if they had any, or giving their own personal notes, if they could get anyone to take them. For these loans, he gave his own personal notes to the amount of Three Hundred Thousand Dollars ($300,000.00.) This money has been spent in paying debts and current expenses; there is nothing productive to show for it, and the interest on these notes has not been paid. Many of them have matured, and those who borrowed have suffered great loss because there was nothing forthcoming to pay them.

He first declared that Zion should never borrow a cent from the world – although he urged Zion people to borrow – then declared that he might borrow Seven Millions of Dollars in fulfillment of prophecy. (See LEAVES OF HEALING, Volume XVII, Number 4, page 110). Following this, he came out in a sermon, entitled "The Policy of Zion" (see LEAVES OF HEALING, Volume XVII, Number 18, page 585) in which he declared that God had showed him that he must not borrow from the world. While Zion City was in this crippled and suffering financial condition, he launched the proposed Zion Paradise Plantation enterprise, and has spent many thousands of dollars of the money invested for that purpose; some in trips to and through Mexico, some for other purposes, including personal expenses.

He has kept up large and expensive personal homes, households, and retinues of servants in Zion City and at Ben MacDhui, near Montague, Michigan, spending many thousands of dollars in improvements upon the Michigan property, at a time when he was commanding all members of Zion to sell all they had and bring it into Zion City. He also bought what he called Bethany Park, improved it, and spent several thousand dollars in a big showy encampment there, at a time when Zion City's industries were idle for want of a few thousand dollars working capital.

He has drained Zion City Bank of its deposits, until men and women who have large deposits there, upon which they were depending for their living, have been compelled to stand in line for hours, and even days, waiting for a dollar or two out of thousands.




These things he has done against the earnest and emphatic protests of his legal and financial advisers, threatening them with discharge when they protested too vigorously, and promising reform in some particulars, only to break all his promises.

Many of these practices have been done in the darkness, so that very few in Zion, even among those nearest him, have known fully of the real state of Zion's affairs. In fact, it was his frequent boast that he alone knew all of Zion's finances.

Such, then, was the condition when on December 18, 1905 he left Zion City for Jamaica.

Just before leaving, he appointed Overseer John G. Speicher, Deacon V. V. Barnes, and Deacon Alexander Granger, as a "Triumvirate," with full power to act in all the affairs of Zion."

We take up now the matter of the protest against the business mismanagement of Mr. Dowie during the last two years of Zion's history, the years 1904-05.

The first one from a man of any special influence in Zion was made by Deacon C. J. Barnard who had been associated with Mr. Dowie in the Zion financial institutions from their beginning. (L. of H. Vol. 18, No. 26, p. 460.) Early in 1899 Deacon Barnard was appointed cashier of Zion City Bank which opened its doors for business February 22, 1899, in Chicago, later being transferred to Zion City. Early in 1901 Mr. Barnard was made general financial manager of all Zion institutions and industries, and manager of Zion City Bank, which position he held until February, 1905. (See long letter from Mr. Barnard, Portland, Ore., March 22, 1906, to Rev. Geo. L. Mason, New York City, in L. of H., Vol. 18, No. 26, p. 460; also a letter of H. Worthington Judd to Rev. J. A. Dowie dated Zion City, Ill., October 6, 1902, for a full discussion of the matter of the protests against Mr. Dowie's financial policy.)

An even stronger protest was sent to Mr. Dowie April 13, 1904, while he was in Zurich, Switzerland, signed by the three men whom he had left in charge of affairs in his absence, John G. Speicher, Chas. J. Barnard, and V. V. Barnes. It is not certain that Mr. Dowie received this communication although it is probable that he did.




From this time on it appears that there was an effort on the part of the business managers of Zion financial institutions to get Mr. Dowie to turn over the commercial affairs of Zion to others and give himself to the specifically religious work. He seems however to have been utterly regardless of all advice, and fully determined to keep everything absolutely in his own control.

In the spring of 1905 matters became almost desperate, and Mr. Dowie's presence in Zion City during the summer of 1905 did not relieve the situation as he was agitating his Paradise Plantation schemes in Mexico and paying little or no attention to the local financial stringencies and industrial depression. (See same copy of L. of H., p. 463.)

On September 24, 1905, Mr. Dowie suffered a paralytic stroke and was compelled to cease active participation in Zion affairs. He left September 28 on a trip to Mexico for rest returning November 26, by way of Havana, Cuba. In attempting to address his people in Shiloh Tabernacle December 3rd, he was overcome by weakness and shortness of breath, being compelled to abandon the service. He became steadily weaker and it was decided that he should seek a warmer climate. He left for Jamaica, December 18, being carried to his private car too sick to stand, scarcely able to speak, at times delirious. March 16, 1906, he left Jamaica and went to Mexico.

A letter from Overseer Wilbur Glenn Voliva, dated November 11, 1905, at Melbourne, Australia, (See L. of  H., Vol. 18, No.9, p. 263) in which this young man of 36 years of age, who had been nearly five years in Australia, professes his love and confidence and loyalty to his "First Apostle" together with devotion to his interests; seems to be the thing that suggested to Mr. Dowie where he might find the man after his own heart to put in full charge of affairs at Zion City.

The "Triumvirate" composed of Overseer John G. Speicher, Deacon V. V. Barnes, and Deacon Alexander Granger began their administration upon the departure of Mr. Dowie, December 18, 1905, with the full confidence of Zion people. They began




to readjust Zion's commercial affairs. But Mr. Speicher incurred the wrath of the absent "Apostle" by officiating at the marriage of Deacon F. W. Cotton and Miss Doris Aufdemberge, and a telegram was sent by Mr. Dowie removing Mr. Speicher from his offices and membership, "for acting as the devil's matrimonial agent." (See L. of H., Vol. 18, No. 25.) Mr. Dowie refused to revoke this action after the matters were explained to him with regard to the marriage at which Mr. Speicher had officiated.

Overseer Voliva was recalled from Australia and appointed by Mr. Dowie as deputy general overseer at Zion City with full power to act in all business and ecclesiastical matters. This really did away with the "Triumvirate." Mr. Voliva arrived in Zion City, February 12, 1906, under definite promise to Mr. Dowie to carry out in full his instructions, and to administer the church in accord with his wishes.

Mr. Voliva is an Indiana man by birth and rearing, and has been preaching since his seventeenth year. He was first with the Christian Connection and then with the Disciples. He joined the C. C. C. in Zion in 1899. In 1901 he was sent to Australia and it is said he won over a thousand adherents to Zion in the less than five years of his work there.

         Mr. Voliva gives his experience after coming to Zion City as follows: "I at once formed a cabinet and council. ... I went on prayerfully from day to day, and the more I investigated the worse I felt, until every particle of manhood in me rose up in indignation. I said to myself, 'I will adopt a pacific policy; I will go along quietly and see what can be done,' and at last, after a long conference with those brethren who are sitting here (referring to Speicher, Barnes, Granger, Braisefield, etc., evidently) we arrived at a conclusion which we believed to be God's will and at once got to work."

Just what was the precise order of developments in the determination to renounce allegiance to Mr. Dowie, cannot be fully ascertained from published documents, although it seems clear that Mr. Voliva was planning and discussing what course




to take looking to the revolt, while it appeared  to the public, and Mr. Dowie believed that he was carrying out fully his chief's orders.

On February 13th, Mr. Voliva had been given full powers of attorney to act for Mr. Dowie in his absence. On the 21st the document was confirmed before V. V. Barnes, as notary public by Mrs. Dowie.

            As late as March 10th Mr. Voliva addressed a letter to Mr. Dowie acknowledging receipt of his instructions in letters and telegrams, and reassuring him of his loyalty in carrying out these instructions.

         The revolt was precipitated April 1st in the afternoon service at Shiloh Tabernacle, Zion City. Mr. Dowie sent a telegram, dated March 31, practically revoking the power of attorney of Mr. Voliva, in which he also commanded certain changes in the policy of Mr. Voliva and his advisers which were as they thought for the best interests of the city and church. In this meeting of April 1st Mr. Voliva read the telegram, and immediately in defiance of the authority of Mr. Dowie, reinstated the deposed Overseer Speicher, and announced his determination not to carry out the instructions contained in the telegram. A large majority of those present sanctioned these acts of rebellion, and emboldened by this demonstration of general dissatisfaction with Mr. Dowie's rule, the following telegram was sent to the deposed leader:


Dowie: -                                                        "Zion City, Ill., April 2, 1906.

         Telegram read here, Chicago practically all including Cincinnati representative endorsed Voliva administration, Speicher's reinstatement, Grangers retention, emphatically protesting against your extravagance, hypocracy, misrepresentations, exaggerations, misuse of investment, tyranny and injustice. You are hereby suspended from office and membership for polygamous teaching and other grave charges. See letter. You must answer these satisfactorily to officers and people. Quietly retire. Further interference will precipitate complete exposure, rebellion, legal proceedings. Your statement of stupendously magnificent financial outlook is extremely foolish in view of thousands suffering through your shameful mismanagement. Zion and creditors will be protected at all costs.

S. Voliva, Piper, Braisefield. Excell, Speicher, Cantel."




And so the rebellion or revolt was precipitated. As a safeguard against Mr. Dowie's removing all the revolting officers and assuming full headship again, a transfer * of all Zion properties held in the name of Mr. Dowie was made by Mr. Voliva acting as attorney.** to Alexander Granger of Zion City .


* See Bill in Chancery referred to below, Exhibits J. K. L. M.


** KNOW  ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, That we, John Alexander Dowie and Jane Dowie, his wife, of the City of Zion, in the County of  Lake and State of Illinois, have made, constituted and appointed, and by these presents do make, constitute and appoint Wilbur Glenn Voliva, of the City of Zion, in said County and State, to be our true and lawful attorney, with full power of substitution and revocation of such substitution and power granted hereunder, for us or either of us, and in our name, place and stead, or in the name, place and stead of either of us, to grant, bargain, mortgage, lease, release, transfer and convey, with or without covenants, including the transfer and waiver of any and all homestead or exemption laws, and rights thereunder, in the State of Illinois and elsewhere, and properly acknowledge any and all papers or conveyances pertaining to any and all property, whether real, personal or mixed, that we or either of us may own, hold or be interested in, and wheresoever the same may be situated as such attorney may see fit; and also to make, execute and deliver any such instrument; and also in our name, place and stead, or in the name, place and stead of either of us, to execute any bail bonds, appeal bonds, injunction bonds, bonds for costs, or any other bonds in judicial proceedings or otherwise now or hereafter instituted, and also to make and enter appearance or admit service of process in any court of record or other court, in the name and for us or either as, whenever our said attorney may deem fit and proper so to do; and also our or either of our names to sign as surety on any official bond of any person duly appointed to any public or private office; and also in our name, place and stead, or in the name, place and stead of either of us to execute, sign and endorse all leases, bonds, contracts, notes, certificates of deposit, certificates of stock, bills of exchange, checks or other instruments in writing which in his said judgment may be necessary or proper to be so signed, executed or endorsed in our or either of our names; and also in our or either of our names to receipt for and receive any letter, package or parcel from the post office, and appoint and authorize any person to so receive and receipt for same, hereby ratifying and confirming all that our said attorney or his substitute shall lawfully do or cause to be done, either by our act, or the act of either of us through him, his own act, or the act of such substitute by virtue hereof.




Upon the receipt of the telegram announcing the revolt Mr. Dowie immediately started on his return journey to Chicago, threatening the conspirators with dreadful punishment. He arrived in Chicago, April 10th, broken in health, and decided to wait further developments before entering Zion City.

During the month of April the counsel which Mr. Dowie engaged presented in the Circuit Court of Lake County, Illinois, his Bill in Chancery fully setting forth the case of Mr. Dowie vs. Wilbur Glenn Voliva, et al.

This Mr. Dowie caused to be printed and circulated in Zion City just prior to April 22nd, the date of his intended entry. However the injunction of the court which he had procured did not give him the right to use the Tabernacle at Zion City until April 29th, and he deferred his entry into the city until the 28th. He addressed a number of his followers in Shiloh Tabernacle Sunday afternoon, April 29th, but had indifferent success in stemming the tide of revolt.


In Witness Whereof we have hereunto set our hands and seals the 13th Day of February, In the Year of our Lord One Thousand Nine Hundred and Six.

                                                             JOHN ALEX. DOWIE. J. A. D. (Seal.)                                                                                                   JANE DOWIE. (Seal.)

Signed, Sealed and Delivered in presence of

O. W. REECE, Witness for John Alex. Dowie.

A. J. GLADSTONE DOWIE, For Jane Dowie.


STATE OF ILLINOIS, County of Lake, ss.

I, V. V. Barnes, a Notary Public in and for said County and State, do hereby certify that Jane Dowie, personally known to me to be the same person whose name is subscribed to the foregoing instrument, appeared before me on this day in person and acknowledged that she signed, sealed and delivered the said instrument as her free and voluntary act for the uses and purposes therein set forth, including the release and waiver of the right of homestead.

   Given under my hand and Notarial Seal this 21st day of February, 

A.D. 1906.

V. V. BARNES, Notary Public.

V. V. Barnes, Notary Public. Lake County, Ill.




The new regime under Mr. Voliva has done everything possible to break down the hold of the former head of Zion by affirming and reaffirming the mismanagement and waste of which he was guilty. They have gone so far as to charge polygamous and immoral teachings and intentions to the man whom a few months before they reverenced as the First Apostle. Numerous reforms have already been wrought. The name of Mr. Dowie has been scratched from the Zion literature and painted out on the buildings and properties of Zion. The gorgeous robes and appurtenances of worship with which Mr. Dowie pleased the fancy of an erstwhile submissive following have been abandoned. The word "apostle" is under the ban for the time, and "apostolic" has been dropped from the title of the organization.

Mr. Voliva says they are going to get back to the simple and biblical organization of the church as first organized. All nonsense will be dropped. One man rule will no longer be possible. A cabinet will henceforth administer the ecclesiastical affairs of Zion. Meanwhile litigation has been begun by Mr. Dowie to recover the leadership and properties of Zion.

There have been a large number of desertions and withdrawals since the beginning of the revolt, and yet the main body of the people seem to be loyal to what they call "Zion Teachings" and are giving their support to the new regime.



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